What Cancer Immunotherapy Clinical Trials Involve

When a new drug is at the clinical trial stage, it has passed all the other steps of testing including trying it on animals. The only thing pending is approval from the Food and Drugs Board. The clinical trials are commonly used on different types of cancer that have become very aggressive. Although your doctor may not mention them, ask him/her the next time you see him. Some people have been delighted with the effects of the trial drugs. Thus, the term immunotherapy clinical trials stand for drugs that are yet to be approved but are at that stage where they can be tested on human beings to cure diseases like cancers.

What You Need to Know about Clinical Trials and the Phases Involved

Before you enroll yourself in a clinical trial, it is essential to ask your doctor all the questions that you may have. Let the doctor explain to you the possible side effects of using the specific drug. You should be aware of the expected results. Even from home, you should be able to tell if the medication is working as expected or something has gone wrong. Another question that you need to ask is about the finances. Who will cover the medical expenses? In most cases, the drug sponsor covers some of the cost of the treatment using his/her medicine for the clinical trial. Your insurance will pay for some of the expenses like consultation fees. Clinical trial drugs are administered in phases. The first stage will have very few people, and the number will increase as you approach phase four. The doctor will be observing how different people react to the drug and how it should be administered. The doctor will also find the right dose to fight a particular type of cancer.

An Example of a Successful Immunotherapy Clinical Trial Drug/Case

One successful case when clinical trial drugs have been used to cure cancer is in the use of CAR T cell therapy. The treatment relies heavily on the use of T cells to fight antigens and pathogens. The T cells are the primary disease-fighting cells in the body. The doctors will get some T cells from the patient’s blood, and then genetically engineer the cells to produce chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) which will help fight the pathogens in the tumor. When the genetically engineered CAR T cells are taken back to the patient’s body, they replicate and fight the cancerous cells. In August 2017, the use of CAR T cell therapy was approved. It is now legal to use it when treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Soon a second therapy will be recommended for used in adults with advanced lymphomas. Before the approval of CAR T therapy was only used in patients with advanced blood cancers.

The Benefits and Risks of Using Clinical Trial as Your Treatment Option

The benefits of using immunotherapy clinical trials are many. Both the patient and the researchers or doctors who are behind the clinical trial drug will benefit. The patient will get access to a drug that is not available to the general public. He or she will also get a chance of beating cancer since many patients have successfully fought cancer with clinical trial drugs. The treatment is also safe to the patient. As of the doctors, by administering the medication to patients, they will be a step closer to making the drug approved. As a patient, you will have helped the doctors come close to getting a lasting solution of curing cancer.

The drugs have some risks too. The most common risks being the fact that the drug may not work on your body. Even when it works, there will be some unforeseen side effects that you will have to experience. Your insurance company will not cover some costs.

Side Effects of Immunotherapy and How They Are Treated

As we all know, almost all drugs have side effects. Immunotherapy also has some side effects that it causes to the patients despite the fact that it does not affect healthy cells as chemotherapy and radiotherapy do. Fortunately, doctors have ways of dealing with these side effects to ensure patients comfort and good health is maintained.

Below are some of the side effects and how they are treated.

Skin Problems

50% percent of patients under immunotherapy present with a skin reaction. The skin may turn red, pale or even yellow. It could also be itching, swelling, reddening or even have pain at the site where the drugs are injected into the body. Also, the patient can present with mouth sores and blisters. However, using warm water with unscented soap while bathing or showering reduces swelling of the skin. The patient should apply a less scented oil or lotion to moisturize the skin to prevent cracking as well as to sooth the skin. Patients should avoid staying out in the sun, and if they have to, they should consider using the sunscreen to prevent their skin from further damage from the sun rays. In addition, topical corticosteroids can also be used in cases of rash and oral antipruritic. If symptoms do not clear up, patients should see a dermatologist for prescription of a stronger cream or antibiotics.

Autoimmune Disorders

Unlike chemotherapy and radiotherapy, immunotherapy does not target all cells in the body. It works on specific tumor cells hence it is preferentially used than other types of therapies. However, some drugs have a powerful effect that they attack the healthy cells and organs. These cause inflammation of the lungs known as pneumonitis which causes shortness of breath as well as chest pain. It also causes inflamed eyes and poor bowel movement hence hindering the normal functioning of the body systems. Endocrine disorders also present and it is characterized by hormonal changes in the body. It presents with symptoms like fatigue, headache, mood changes, rapid heartbeats and hair loss. Some of these conditions are fatal while others are mild and treatment is given according to the severity. Doctors, therefore, prescribe corticosteroids depending on the seriousness of the disease. Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory drugs that are prescribed to reduce inflammation of tissues and organs. Nevertheless, corticosteroids side effects should be monitored as they cause weight gain.

Flu-like Symptoms

This is yet another syndrome that presents with so many symptoms, therefore, lacking a one-way treatment. Doctors treat one symptom at a time as it shows. Different therapies are prescribed. Not many drugs are taken due to these symptoms as most of them are managed using supportive measures. These symptoms include; chills, weakness, dizziness, fever nausea dry cough joint pain as well as muscle pain. Pain is controlled by taking over the counter drugs. Severe vomiting and diarrhea, however, needs close monitoring and a stronger medication. Stomach aches and nausea are managed at home whereby the doctor teaches the patients on how to handle them at home. For instance, in case of stomach ache, the doctor will advise one to take cold food that has less smell. For a patient who is vomiting, sips of ice water, juice and ginger prevent one from feeling nausea hence the patient cannot vomit anymore. These are among the measures that are taken to ensure that the patient is comfortable with the immunotherapy that he is receiving.

Management of the side effects associated with immunotherapy is vital as it increases the comfortability of the patient during treatment. It also overcomes treatment withdrawal due to nuisance side effects that can discourage the patients from using immunotherapy treatment.

Breast Cancer: Answers to Your Questions from Other Woman

Experience is the best teacher. No one can teach you better than a person who has had the same experience as you. You can also learn as you go through your experience. It never hurts to be prepared, having some answers and insight to some questions will make your journey less cumbersome. Here is a list of the commonly asked questions and what other women had to say.

How Do You Tell Your Children and Colleagues at Work?

This question has been asked very frequently by many mothers. You will want to remain strong and take care of your children. Either way, remember keeping them in darkness will hurt them even more. How you break the news to them will depend on how old they are. But either way, allow them to help you in their small ways. Let them help around the house with chores. It will be very fulfilling to them knowing that they are there for their mother. About your colleagues at work, you can use a close friend to pass on the things you want to tell them. Trust me you do not want to keep repeating the same story over and over. People will want to know how you are doing, how you respond is entirely up to you. Educate them when they seem insensitive and send them off if you are tired.

Will You Have Surgery or Chemotherapy as Your Treatment Options?

Whether or not you will go through chemotherapy depends on the stage of your cancer, how aggressive it is and the status of your HER2 receptors and ER/PR receptors. HER2 receptors stand for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. IF your HER2 is negative, then Chemotherapy is advisable. ER/PR receptors, they are estrogen and progesterone receptors which help in detecting the cancerous cells in your breast. If the cancer is ER/PR negative, then it is classified as a high-risk breast cancer, and chemotherapy will be advised. When cancer has spread to your lymph nodes which are located around your armpits, then a more aggressive treatment such as chemo is carried out. As for surgery, your doctor will decide based on the size of your tumor, the stage, its location and the size of your breast. You also have a choice as the patient; you may opt out of surgery and go for treatments such as radiation.

How to Deal with Anxiety the Answer to Reconstructive Surgery Worries

Many women get very anxious, especially when waiting for the results. You want the results to be good news, but you have no control over them. The only way you can get some hope is by talking to fellow women on internet chat rooms who have been through what you are going through. From the many confessions, you will get you will be less anxious. Talk to friend s and family. O to a library do some research and be informed, so you have a glimpse of what to expect. If none of the above strategies work, take some anti-anxiety medications as prescribed by your doctor. As for reconstructive surgery, it is entirely your choice. The timing of the operation varies depending on the stage of your cancer. For stage one cancer which is small and less spreading, you can have the surgery immediately after your mastectomy. But for advanced cancer, you are advised to wait.

For Breast cancer patients, it is beneficial to learn from your fellow women who have gone through the same ordeal.

Do the Following Foods and Substances or Actions Cause Cancer?

There is a lot of research that is aimed at determining whether the things you use daily can be increasing the risk of cancer. The foods sold in stores today or even from farms have been linked to different types of cancer. For you to protect yourself, be on your toes, be updated and keep off the substances that are carcinogenic. Some of the foods and items that have been linked to cancer include;

X-rays and Other Forms of Radiation from Electronic Devices

Over the years, extensive research has been done to find out the link between cancer and radiation. Exposure to the high energy radiation coming from X-Rays is harmful and carcinogenic. It is not clear how much exposure will lead to cancer but the more you are exposed, the higher the risk of coming down with cancer. To avoid this, lower the exposure when you can. Your dentist ensures that you are covered with a lead material every time you have a dental X-ray during your checkup or treatments for a reason. Cell phones and other electronic devices such as microwave emit the same radiations that with time will cause cancer. Keep all electronic devices an arm away from your body. Power lines have radiations too although they are Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) type. To be safe, monitor the level of radiations around your home if you leave near power lines by using a gaussmeter to measure ELF fields.

Sex and Dome Household Items

Studies have linked sex to spread of the cancer-causing virus; Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The virus causer Cervical cancer in women and is transmitted by men. To protect yourself from this type of cancer, ensure that you stick to one sexual partner, use condoms regularly and get yourself vaccinated. Men should do the same to protect their partners. Every adult who has unprotected sex is exposed to the virus at one point in their life, but not every person gets the disease. Some household items such as paint, pesticides, cosmetics and automotive give off some gas that has been proven to be carcinogenic. The gases are commonly known as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The compounds cause cancer in animals and human beings. When out shopping for such household items, look at the label, go for those that are labeled low-VOCs.

Meat, Coffee, and Alcohol


It is important to note that not all types of meat pose a risk of cancer. Processed, red and grilled meats are some of the meat that will expose you to cancer causative agents. Grilled meat is exposed to an extremely high temperature that produces compounds such as heterocyclic aromatic amines and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are carcinogenic. Processed meat, on the other hand, has preservatives such as nitrites that are carcinogenic too. If you want proteins, stick with fish and plant protein, they are much safer. As for coffee, no research has tied it to cancer risk. In fact, a study has shown that drinking about four cups of coffee daily lowers the risk of getting liver, throat and prostate cancers among other types. With alcohol, it is widely known that it passes a great danger and risk of getting liver, esophageal and colon cancers among others. This happens when alcohol is consumed in excess.

Doing some personal research will help you differentiate the myths from the facts and protect your health and that o your family.